Amal Hanano

Syrian American Writer


I'm a Syrian American writer from Aleppo. I've published over 60 articles on the Syrian revolution since 2011 in Foreign Policy, The National, Jadaliyya, and Syria Deeply.



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Her Voice

On the eve of the second anniversary of the Syrian Revolution, I watched a single video: footage of an early expression of resistance recorded in central Damascus on March 15, 2011. After watching thousands of videos for the last two years protests, funerals, destruction, bombs, and countless corpses — I was surprised that this video was as difficult to watch as the horrific ones. It’s a video that accidentally recorded an act of unparalleled bravery: one voice that pierced 41 years of a nation’s voluntary silence. 

The scene opens in the bustling Hamidiyeh commercial center. In the background, men’s robotic voices thud like war drums, “With souls. With blood. We sacrifice for you, ya Bashar.” With each moment, the deafening beats grow louder. Another crowd forms out of what had appeared to be random pedestrians. Their words “silmiyeh, silmiyeh” (peaceful, peaceful) mesh with the men’s chant. The demonstrators arrive to our vantage point and as the new crowd joins in, they replace Bashar’s name with “Souriya.” With souls. With blood. We sacrifice for you, ya Souriya. 

One woman appears in the frame. She yells, “It’s coming nearer to your Abu Hafez,” referencing the season of revolutions that had ignited in the region. Syria’s flag is proudly draped over her shoulders like a cape. The bright red pops in the muted sea of black, brown, and gray. She carries the only flag in this demonstration. This is not surprising, as the mob is chanting for a person and not a country. The mob’s chant represents the typical fear, submission, and humiliation of Assad’s Syria.

Moments later, the crowd breaks apart and she slips off the incriminating flag and slips on her sunglasses as a few thugs surround her, pulling her out of the march. She screams, “I don’t want to. I don’t want to,” walking away from them back into the demonstration. But they pull her out again. She screams, as a few women try to hold her back, try to save her from her own voice, “Freedom, in spite of your Bashar.” The people around her begin to chant “peaceful, peaceful” once more. She walks away, waving her flag in defiance, calling “Where are the men? Where are the men?” Then, “peaceful, peaceful” switches to “freedom, freedom.”  

We are left at the intersection where the two groups have split into different directions. But as the video ends, only one chant can be heard, a chant that has become a roar, “Allah, Souriya, hurriyeh w bess!” 

People reference multiple starting dates for the revolution: February 17, March 6, March 15, March 18. But all of them began with a moment like this one. All of them began with a voice. 


The day after this event, Suheir Atassi and a group of protesters stood in front of the courthouse in Damascus demanding for the release of political prisoners. They were in turn imprisoned for their dissent. Two days after that, on a Friday, a protest emerged from the Hamzah and Abbas mosque in Daraa demanding that their tortured children be released from prison. Two men, Mahmoud Jawabrah and Hussam Ayyash were shot dead by security forces. The day after that, more men were killed while burying the revolution’s first martyrs. And the day after that, there was a protest to protest the funeral deaths. And the day after that there was a funeral for the people who were killed in the protest the day before. More violence and more deaths. More deaths and more violence. And here we are, two years later with over 70,000 dead, over a million Syrian refugees, and a country that has become a landscape of destruction. 

Some people talk about the heavy price of the revolution. Some people talk about their fears of the future as if a viable, secure future under Assad’s rule is even possible. And some people ask, “Was it worth it?” 

We have all lost. Sometimes it seems we have gained nothing but loss. Sometimes, even we watch the bloody videos and silently wonder, “Was it worth it?” It is the weakest question to ask; the question of despair. 

Would you dare ask that woman “Was it worth it?” or “Is this the freedom you want?”


That voice lived within us. We hid it and never dared to speak it aloud. Not because we feared the unknown, on the contrary, we feared the known. Dissent meant torture, exile, death. That dormant voice became words spoken aloud in the street and scribbled on a school wall. Words that broke the fear. Words that became actions and actions that ended with rivers of Syrian blood.  

That woman’s voice represents all of ours. Each of us knows the specific moment when our voices joined hers. For some, the moment arrived later than others. For some, the moment never arrived, as relentless fear still grips their vocal cords. And for thousands of Syrians, that voice cost them their lives. 

Rami Jarrah always reminds me, the ones who start revolutions are not the ones who see them through. Maybe that is the greatest unknown that we should have feared. That good will eventually be broken. That hope will eventually die. That what we will be left with is less than what we had when we started. But then, I remember this video and imagine the courage of one woman’s voice against a sea of cowardly ones. I remember so many Syrian voices: the tortured man whose final words were, “my wife is my crown,” the boy who was shot in a protest and fell into his father’s arms saying “Forgive me, dad,” citizen journalist and martyr Mohamed Masalmeh, who declared that he was blessed to be one of the first protesters in Daraa, and Raed Faris, the Kafranbel artist, who said after Jabhet al-Nusra took over their town square for a recent Friday protest, “Let them take the square. The real square is where we are.”

There is no real celebration this year. There is no joy. The regime killed it many months ago. There are no more expectations. The Syrian political opposition killed those many months ago as well. There is no waiting for the world to act. We know that this is an unfair battle that Syrians will fight while everyone else watches in silence.

All we have left is what we began with: sheer awe at the resilience and determination of the Syrian people who despite their orphaned revolution and against all odds still stand shoulder to shoulder in now unrecognizable streets with nothing but their voices, their flags, and their chant: Freedom. 

What is left is hope. And the knowledge that they will be there tomorrow and after tomorrow and the day after that … until the end. 

I hope that the woman from Damascus is still alive. I hope I will meet her one day and tell her: Thank you for freeing our voices. 


March 15, 2013, Aleppo, Syria  

Mohamed “Abu al-Nimer” Masalmeh: Son of Houran, Son of the Revolution


On April 25, 2011, a man held up a video camera in Daraa. He was not an experienced videographer and he did not have a tripod. He stood in front of a group of Syrian army soldiers with tanks and filmed them shooting their machine guns towards civilian targets. Each time he watched the clip on his laptop, he noticed the footage was shaky due to his trembling hand, so he would go back to his dangerous and exposed vantage point to film once more. He did this 24 times before he had a somewhat stable clip

His name was Mohamed “Abu al-Nimer” Masalmeh. On January 18, 2013 — after 22 months of reporting as a citizen journalist from Daraa— he was killed by Assad snipers in the village of Busra al-Harir. He was armed with a microphone and his camera.

32-year-old Abu al-Nimer was well-known in Daraa for his impeccable aluminum kitchen cabinets and window frames. Before the revolution ignited from his home city, he had been detained for four months in the Air Force intelligence center in Damascus. He was released during the first weeks of the Arab Spring in time to witness an ousted dictator in Tunisia and a roaring Tahrir Square threatening Mubarak. A group of underground activists, including Mohamed, began meeting in Ali Masalmeh’s farm to discuss how to begin the revolution in Syria. In the meantime, 15 schoolboys, influenced by their older brothers’ secret discussions and scenes of protests in Egypt and Libya, wrote on the school walls, “The people want to topple the regime.” The boys were arrested and tortured.

On Wednesday, March 15, 2011, Mohamed joined a group of 30 men to protest the schoolboys’ arrest in Daraa’s main square in front of the Saraya courthouse. Intelligence officers had already heard about the plot and swarmed the area. The protest was silently aborted. On March 18, they tried again, this time emerging from the Hamza and Abbas Mosque after Friday prayers chanting: freedom, freedom, freedom. Thousands joined them, security forces opened fire, two protesters were killed, and a revolution was born.

Mohamed laid down his construction tools and picked up a camera to film the events unfolding in Daraa. He joined the growing Sham News Network (SNN) as a citizen journalist. His reports from Daraa were moving tributes to the sacrifices and destruction of his city which has been under siege since April 2011. He took to wearing disguises during his television reports: a black wig; a scarf; large sunglasses. But the son of Daraa with his round face and kind eyes was known to his city and to the shabiha. He was a wanted man. 

Last year, Mohamed began reporting for Al-Jazeera. He felt Daraa had been forgotten in the media as the violence raged in the rest of the country. His brave reports from the ground exposed the suffering of southern Syria. 

A week before his death, his wife returned to Daraa to visit him. They took walks on the snow-covered streets and he drew a heart in the snow with the words “Daraa, Wala’.” Her name meant loyalty. He was loyal to his wife and his city. He was also known for his generosity, often returning home with emptied pockets as he walked the streets of Daraa listening to tales of hardship. And although he was the city’s most prominent media activist, he never upgraded his old Nokia phone, saying, “This phone understands me and I understand it.” 

Mohamed once said, “I thank God that I was blessed to be one of the men to leave the Hamza and Abbas Mosque chanting, ‘freedom.’” He insisted on mentioning martyrs’ names in his report, lest anyone forget, names of other sons of Houran: Ali Masalmeh, Mahmoud Jawabrah, and Husam Abd al-Wali Ayyash. When 4 SNN citizen journalists were killed in June 2012 in Damascus, Mohamed protested in Daraa, without a disguise, holding a sign that said: “We are all Sham.” 

In the last few weeks, his friends begged him to leave Daraa; it had become too dangerous. He replied, “I’ll leave but first I need to go to Busra al-Harir so I can rest.” Busra al-Harir — a village around 50 kilometers from Daraa — was the site of intense fighting between Assad forces and the Free Syrian Army. 

In his final video, he stands on a street corner with armed FSA fighters. He is unarmed, in regular clothes, holding a microphone with a makeshift Al-Jazeera logo. A fighter tests the situation and darts across the street first. He arrives safely to the other side. Abu al-Nimer is next; he is visibly nervous. He puts his head down and runs. Three shots break the silence. Three bullets catch him before he reaches to safety. He falls; his body convulses. The video ends.

Mohamed was shot twice in the torso and once in his leg. There were no doctors or an adequate medical facility to treat him. Like thousands of Syrian martyrs before him, and dozens of citizen journalists, Mohamed Masalmeh bled to death. 

Daraa slowly bleeds hero after hero. The courageous city resists, but paused one day in January to mourn Houran’s beloved son, Mohamed “Abu a-Nimer” Masalmeh, who had finally found a place to rest. 

Amal Hanano

This piece was originally published in Syria Deeply and in Sham News Journal in Arabic.

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